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Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz

b. Madrid, Spain 23 May 1606
d. Vigevano, Italy 8 September 1682

Caramuel was a member of the Cistercian Order who held a number of positions in the Catholic church including the office of bishop. Nicolas Bernoulli mistakenly states that he was a Jesuit. Many works are credited to him over a broad range of topics including mathematics. Of these, of greatest interest in the history of probability is Mathesis biceps: Vetus et nova, published at Campagna in 1670.  

An examination of its table of contents shows that it is a summary of the mathematical and technical knowledge of the time.  Section 6 concerns Combinatorial mathematics and subsequently games and lotteries. Here is reproduced the Subsection entitled KYBEIA. Nicolas Bernoulli is critical of the work saying that it is full of circumlocutions.

This text has been modernized slightly and obvious corrections inserted without notice in the few places where errors have occured in printing. The typesetter often used contractions to fit words to a line. Thus "quisq;" becomes "quisque" and "oblectãdum" becomes "oblectandum." Where Caramuel prints greek words with latin letters, we have returned to the greek.