HOME email

Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet
b. Ribemont, France 17 September 1743
d. Bourg-la-Reine, France 29 March 1794

These documents may be freely copied for use by educators and educational institutions as long as proper credit is given and they remain unaltered. This site may neither be mirrored nor its files reposted. Comments and corrections are welcome. As time permits I will expand the materials available here.

Due to the publication of a mathematical memoir in 1765, Condorcet came to the attention of scientists of France. He was elected as a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1769 eventually becoming its permanent secretary. Later he became a member also of the Académie Française. Due to his political activities after the French Revolution, particularly the publication of the pamphlet Avis aux français (A Warning to the French), a warrent was issued for his arrest on 8 July 1793. After a period of flight, Condorcet was arrested on 27 March in Clamart and taken to the prison in Bourg-la-Reine. He was found dead the next morning. This prompted the rumor that he had committed suicide.

Condorcet is best known for the Essai sur l'application de l'analyse à la probabilité des décisions rendues à la pluralité des voix, 1785. (At Gallica.)

As for probability, there are the following:

Section 9 seems to have been reprinted from the Journal d'instruction social (22 June, 6 July 1795; Oeuvres I. 539-573). Here are Sections 5- 8

Encyclopedia Mèthodique

Three related articles by Condorcet were included in the Encyclopedia Mèthodique. These are Absent, Probabilité and Substitutions. See also d'Alembert and Diderot

Population Estimates

Condorcet, du Séjour and Laplace jointly engaged in an estimation of the population of France. The result of their work appeared in a series of six reports published in the Mémoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences of Paris in the years 1786 (pp. 703-718), 1787 (pp. 577-593), 1788 (pp. 661-689 and 703-717),  1789 (pp. 601-610) and 1791 (pp. 755-767).